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  • Right to an Effective Remedy

    Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by a competent national tribunal for acts that violate his or her rights or freedoms.
    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “Each State Party to the present covenant undertakes : (a) to ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms are herein recognized as violated shall have an effective remedy, not withstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity; (b) to ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy; (c) to ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “States Parties shall assure to everyone within their jurisdiction effective protection and remedies, through the competent national tribunals and other State institutions, against any acts of racial discrimination which violate his human rights and fundamental freedoms contrary to this convention, as well as the right to seek from such tribunals just and adequate reparation or satisfaction for any damage suffered as a result of such discrimination.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to this end, undertake…To Establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men and to ensure through competent national tribunals and other public institutions the effective protection of women against any act of discrimination.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “States Parties shall undertake to: a) provide for appropriate remedies to any woman whose rights or freedoms, as herein recognised, have been violated; b) ensure that such remedies are determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by law.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “Everyone has the right to simple and prompt recourse, or any other effective recourse, to a competent court or tribunal for protection against acts that violate his fundamental rights recognized by the constitution or laws of the state concerned or by this Convention, even though such violation may have been committed by persons acting in the course of their official duties.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral Dispute Resolution, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Registration, Voter Education

      “Every woman has the right to the recognition, enjoyment, exercise and protection of all human rights and freedoms embodied in regional and international human rights instruments. These rights include, among others: …g. The right to simple and prompt recourse to a competent court for protection against acts that violate her rights. ”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Registration, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, The Media, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “The States Parties undertake to ensure that the victims of discrimination and intolerance receive equitable and non-discriminatory treatment, equal access to the justice system, expeditious and effective proceedings, and fair compensation in the civil or criminal sphere, as applicable. ”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “Article 2, paragraph 3, requires that in addition to effective protection of Covenant rights States Parties must ensure that individuals also have accessible and effective remedies to vindicate those rights… The Committee attaches importance to States Parties’ establishing appropriate judicial and administrative mechanisms for addressing claims of rights violations under domestic law… Administrative mechanisms are particularly required to give effect to the general obligation to investigate allegations of violations promptly, thoroughly and effectively through independent and impartial bodies.”

    • Legal Framework, Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation, Election Management, Voter Education, Candidacy and Campaigning, Voter Registration, Voting Operations, Vote Counting and Tabulation, The Media, Electoral Dispute Resolution

      “Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.”

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

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International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

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Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

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Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa

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American Convention on Human Rights

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Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women

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Inter-American Convention Against All Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance

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General Comment No. 31[80]: Nature of the General Legal Obligation on States Parties to the Covenant

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Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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