"The electoral system can include a component that seeks to address previous imbalances in political representation through the use of quotas or reserved seats to promote the representation of, for example, women and minorities."
DocumentEU: Handbook for European Union Election Observation, Second Edition, p. 32
- Temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women may include the use of quotas to ensure their participation or representation.
- Special measures to ensure participation and representation of national minorities may include reduced or waived minimum support, deposit, and electoral threshold requirements, and quotas.
- Temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women can include financially assisting and training women candidates, amending electoral procedures, developing campaigns directed at equal participation, and targeting women for appointment to public positions, or the use of quotas.