"Three types of suffrage are available in democratic systems: direct universal suffrage, indirect universal suffrage and multi-tiered elections. - direct universal suffrage: namely “where every citizen, except those who are excluded by law, can directly participate in the vote” and elect his or her representatives without the involvement of intermediaires. This type of vote is employed in practically all democracies for the purposes of electing representatives to lower chambers. - indirect universal suffrage: elected representatives are chosen by leading citizens, who may themselves be elected representatives. However, unlike electoral colleges, the leading citizens in question are not chosen for that purpose. - Multi-tiered elections: representatives are chosen by electoral colleges chosen for that purpose. Nowadays this type of suffrage is no longer used to elect representatives to lower chambers, but the President of the United States is elected by a system of electoral colleges. "