"According to a study by the Venice Commission, dual voting is an exceptional measure that has to be within the legal framework of the constitution and may be permitted if it respects the principle of proportionality in its various aspects. This implies that it can only be justified if: - It is impossible to reach the aim pursued through other less intrusive measures that do not infringe upon equal voting rights; - It has a transitional character; and - It concerns only a numerically small minority."
DocumentOSCE (ODIHR): Handbook On Observing and Promoting the Participation of National Minorities in Electoral Processes, p. 47
- Special measures to ensure participation and representation of national minorities may include reduced or waived minimum support, deposit, and electoral threshold requirements, and quotas.
- Electoral system design should take into account the needs and facilitate participation and representation of vulnerable groups, including of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities.