"States parties are under an obligation to take all appropriate measures, including the enactment of appropriate legislation that complies with their Constitution, to ensure that organizations such as political parties and trade unions, which may not be subject directly to obligations under the Convention, do not discriminate against women and respect the principles contained in articles 7 and 8."
DocumentUN (CEDAW): General Recommendation No. 23: Political and Public Life, para. 42
- States should take special, temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women.
- Necessary steps to give effect to human rights include a requirement to prevent, punish, investigate, or redress violations of human rights by non-state actors.
- Necessary steps to give effect to human rights include an obligation to regulate violations of human rights by non-state actors.