"Decisions on the choice of electoral systems are important to overcome the traditional gender bias that undermines women’s participation. Substantive progress towards the equal participation of women as candidates and voters as well as the holding of free and fair elections will not be possible unless a number of appropriate measures are taken, including a gender-responsive electoral system and the adoption of temporary special measures to enhance women’s participation as candidates, ensure a proper voter’s registration system and ensure that women voters and female political candidates are not subject to violence either by State or private actors. "
DocumentUN (CEDAW): General Recommendation No. 30 on Women in Conflict Prevention, Conflict and Post-conflict Situations, pg.19,para. IV.B.9.72
- States should take special, temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women.
- Temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women may include the use of quotas to ensure their participation or representation.
- Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process.
- States should ensure that violence does not undermine women's political participation.
- The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women.
- Temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women can include financially assisting and training women candidates, amending electoral procedures, developing campaigns directed at equal participation, and targeting women for appointment to public positions, or the use of quotas.