"[Member states should] consider adopting legislative reforms to introduce parity thresholds for candidates in elections at local, regional, national and supra-national levels. Where proportional lists exist, consider the introduction of zipper systems. "
DocumentCoE (Committee of Ministers): Recommendation Rec(2003)3 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Balanced Participation of Women and Men in Political and Public Decision Making, A.3
- States should take special, temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women.
- Temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women may include the use of quotas to ensure their participation or representation.
- The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women.
- Temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women can include financially assisting and training women candidates, amending electoral procedures, developing campaigns directed at equal participation, and targeting women for appointment to public positions, or the use of quotas.