Members of the media have the right to security of the person.
- Law enforcement officials involved in policing assemblies must respect and ensure the exercise of the fundamental rights of organizers and participants, while also protecting journalists, monitors and observers, medical personnel and other members of the public, as well as public and private property, from harm.
- There are prompt and effective investigations of threats and crimes against journalists and new media actors. There is no climate of impunity.
- National authorities must not only guarantee journalists’ security and media freedom by preventing and unconditionally condemning blatant violations, but they must also recognise and oppose the threat that more insidious methods pose to the independence and genuine pluralism of the media, to the interest of the public in receiving unbiased, critical information and hence to our democratic systems.
- The murder, kidnapping, intimidation of and/or threats to social communicators, as well as he material destruction of communications violate the fundamental rights of individuals and strongly restriction freedom of expression. It is the duty of the state to prevent and investigate such occurrences, to punish their perpetrators and to ensure that victims receive due compensation.
- It is imperative that everyone involved in killings of, attacks on and ill-treatment of journalists and other media actors be brought to justice.
- 1. Attacks such as the murder, kidnapping, intimidation of and threats to media practitioners and other exercising their right to freedom of expression, as well as the material destruction of communications facilities, undermines independent journalism, freedom of expression and the free flow of information to the public. 2. States are under an obligation to take effective measures to prevent such attacks and, when they do occur, to investigate them, to punish perpetrators and to ensure that victims have access to effective remedies.
- Direct or indirect pressures exerted upon journalists or other social communicators to stifle the dissemination of information are incompatible with freedom of expression.
- Public authorities should take appropriate steps for the effective protection of journalists and other media personnel and their premises, as this assumes a grater significance during elections. At the same time, this protection should not obstruct them in carrying out their work.
- No democracy can thrive unless citizens have the information they need to make the choices required of them in selecting their representatives in government. Similarly, the media cannot thrive if confronted with undue state interference in its broadcasts or if journalists suffer from censorship or intimidation.
- States are under a positive obligation to provide protection to journalists and others who are at risk of being attacked for exercising their right to freedom of expression, to launch effective investigations when such attacks do occur, so that those responsible may be held accountable, and to offer effective remedies to victims.
- In the context of promoting free expression during electoral processes, States should: (b) Guarantee the safety of journalists and media workers; legislative and policy measures must be adopted to prevent attacks against journalists and to eradicate impunity in relation to episodes of violence and intimidation.
- Administrations have a duty to protect journalists from attacks or intimidation and to enable them to work safely, without fear of reprisals for their reporting. Any form of violence against journalists (including harassment and intimidation), as well as any illegal actions interfering with media freedom, should be investigated and prosecuted.
- Ensuring the safety of journalists online and offline and ending impunity for threats, intimidation, harassment, attacks and killings of journalists, including women journalists, bloggers, cartoonists and human rights defenders is key to restoring confidence in the public sphere as a safe place for democratic deliberations.
- The media should be assured by the government of: (1) the right to gather and report objective information without intimidation; and (2) no arbitrary or discriminatory obstruction or censorship of campaign messages.
- The authorities should ensure that the media have the right to gather and report information freely, without intimidation or obstruction, and that there is no censorship of either the media or candidates.
- Governments have a general obligation to safeguard the physical security of all people within their jurisdiction. In addition, various statements in UN documents support a heightened obligation of governments to protect journalist and media offices from physical attack. The member of the UN, at the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna…among other matters, reaffirmed and strengthened their commitment to give effect to many of the fundamental rights set forth in the [UDHR]. Paragraph 25 of the Vienna Declaration is particularly relevant: [T]he World Conference encourages the increased involvement of the media, for whom freedom and protection should be guaranteed within the framework of national law...For the above reasons and owing to the particular importance during election campaigns of protecting the security of the mass media, including those that publish controversial views, governments must be especially vigilant during election campaigns to condemn, investigate and punish attacks against media personnel and property.
- Media workers who investigate corruption or wrongdoing should not be targeted for legal or other harassment in retaliation for their work.
- Attacks such as the murder, kidnapping, harassment of and/or threats to journalists and others exercising their right to freedom of expression, as well as the material destruction of communications facilities, pose a very significant threat to independent and investigative journalism, to freedom of expression and to the free flow of information to the public.States are under an obligation to take adequate measures to end the climate of impunity and such measures should include devoting sufficient resources and attention to preventing attacks on journalists and others exercising their right to freedom of expression...
- Intimidation of journalists, particularly murder and physical attacks, limit the freedom of expression not only of journalists but of all citizens, because they produce a chilling effect on the free flow of information, due the fear they create of reporting on abuses of power, illegal activities and other wrongs against society. States have an obligations to take effective measures to prevent such illegal attempts to limit the right to freedom of expression.
- It is essential that journalists and other agents of the mass media, in their own country and abroad be assured of protection guaranteeing them the best conditions for the exercise of their profession.