An independent monitoring body should be created to review political and campaign finance.
- The legal framework should require periodic reporting at reasonable intervals of all contributions received and expenditure incurred by an electoral contestant.
- The legal framework should specifically identify the agency responsible for receiving and maintaining campaign contribution and expenditure reports. The legal framework should clearly specify where and when such reports are available for public inspection.
- Campaign costs can include salaries, transportation, office expenses, the purchase of print and electronic media, and the printing and distribution of campaign materials.
- It is a good practice to require both pre- and post-election disclosure of campaign spending.
- [The Electoral Commission] should be empowered to ensure that proper election expense returns are submitted on time, to inspect party accounts, and for parties to have properly audited and verified accounts.
- Political parties and candidates should account to the EMB for the use of such [public] resources.
- First of all, funding must be transparent; such transparency is essential whatever the level of political and economic development of the country concerned. Transparency operates at two levels. The first concerns campaign funds, the details of which must be set out in a special set of carefully maintained accounts. In the event of significant deviations from the norm or if the statutory expenditure ceilings are exceeded, the election must be annulled. The second level involves monitoring the financial status of elected representatives before and after their term in office. A commission in charge of financial transparency takes formal note of the elected representatives’ statements as to their finances. The latter are confidential, but the records can, if necessary, be forwarded to the public prosecutor’s office.