Sources

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Issues


The Legal Framework and Candidacy and Campaigning

  • Key Obligations:
  • State Must Take Necessary Steps to Give Effect to Rights
  • Rule of Law

The principles of rule of law were promoted

  • States should take measures to promote the principles of the rule of law. [?]

Campaign finance regulation was consistent with the principles of the rule of law

  • The legal framework should address all components of the system of party and candidate financing. [?]
  • Campaign finance legislation should be publicly available. [?]
  • Legislation on political party and campaign finance should avoid conflicting provisions governing the activities of political parties and their financial activities. [?]
  • Legislation should cover fundamental issues such as sources of funding, private donations, public subsidies to political parties, the financing of election campaigns and provisions for disclosure, reporting, monitoring, and enforcement. [?]
  • Legislation on political party and campaign finance should be clear and unambiguous. [?]
  • Legislation on political party and campaign finance should avoid conflicting provisions between laws governing the financing of national and sub-national parties. [?]

The laws regulating elections were equally enforced and were not arbitrarily applied

  • All are equal before the law, and laws should be equally enforced. [?]
  • States should take measures to promote the principles of the rule of law. [?]
  • Laws and procedures must not be arbitrarily applied. [?]

The legal framework for elections was consistent with international human rights

  • Laws must be consistent with international human rights. [?]

Establishment, Regulation of, and Membership in Political Parties

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right and Opportunity to Be Elected
  • Freedom of Association
  • Freedom from Discrimination and Equality Before the Law

Citizens were able to establish and participate in political parties and other associations

  • Freedom of association may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of public safety/order. [?]
  • Particular individual electoral rights should be extended to associations and political parties. [?]
  • Freedom of association may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of protecting the rights and freedoms of others. [?]
  • Freedom of association may be restricted under certain circumstances as are prescribed by law and necessary in a democratic society. [?]
  • Parties must be granted an opportunity to challenge state decisions restricting their activities or formation. [?]
  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity and expression, migrant, refugee, repatriate, stateless or internally displaced status, genetic trait, mental or physical health condition, including infectious contagious condition and debilitating psychological condition, or other status at any time. [?]
  • Lawful restrictions of this freedom may also be placed on members of the armed forces and the police. [?]
  • All individuals and groups should have the right to establish their own political parties or political organizations on equal terms. [?]
  • Freedom of association may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of national security. [?]
  • Association with a political party must be voluntary. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to associate with a political party. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to establish a political party. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to association. [?]
  • Freedom of association may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interests of public health or morals. [?]

Individual electoral rights could be enjoyed in community with others

  • Particular individual electoral rights should be extended to associations and political parties. [?]

Political organizations were treated equally in being recognized and registering as a party

  • Particular individual electoral rights should be extended to associations and political parties. [?]
  • Political parties may be required to register with election authorities when contesting the election. The grounds for rejecting a registration application should be based on objective criteria. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to association. [?]
  • Regardless of their ideological position, political parties should be treated equally in being recognized and registering as a party. [?]
  • All individuals and groups should have the right to establish their own political parties or political organizations on equal terms. [?]
  • Political parties should be assured that they will be able to compete with each other on an equal basis before the law. [?]
  • Association with a political party must be voluntary. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to associate with a political party. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to establish a political party. [?]

Regulations and deadlines for legal recognition of political parties were clearly specified. Registration requirements were not so stringent that they jeopardized freedom of association

  • States should legally recognize political parties for the effective exercise of related civil and political rights. [?]
  • Requirements for legal recognition should be clearly specified and realistic. [?]
  • Deadlines for applications for legal recognition should be clearly specified. [?]

The grounds for rejecting registration of a party were based on objective criteria

  • Parties must be granted an opportunity to challenge state decisions restricting their activities or formation. [?]
  • Political parties may be required to register with election authorities when contesting the election. The grounds for rejecting a registration application should be based on objective criteria. [?]

The Election Calendar and Enjoyment of Rights

  • Key Obligations:
  • Periodic Elections

The election schedule provided adequate time for the registration of candidates and campaigning, as well as the resolution of any complaints prior to election day

  • The electoral calendar should provide adequate time for campaigning and public information efforts. [?]

Candidature

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right and Opportunity to Participate in Public Affairs
  • Freedom of Association
  • Rule of Law
  • Freedom from Discrimination and Equality Before the Law
  • Right and Opportunity to Be Elected

Candidacy requirements upheld freedom of association

  • Demands on political parties regarding registration should not be so stringent as to jeopardize their freedom of association. [?]

Citizens were able to support any and all candidates of their choice

  • Voters should be allowed to sign ballot qualification petitions for more than one candidate or party. [?]

Every citizen had the right to be elected, subject only to reasonable restrictions

  • Suspension or exclusion of participatory rights is prohibited except on grounds established by law and which are objective and reasonable. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as physical disability. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as religion. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as ethnic origin. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as race. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including a minimum age limit. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as sexual orientation. [?]
  • Every citizen has the right to be elected. [?]
  • There should be a clear deadline after which the validity of candidatures cannot be challenged. [?]
  • Limits on those wishing to run for office must be based on objective and reasonable criteria. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as political opinion or affiliation (past and present). [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as education. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as economic status. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including criminal conviction. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including support from a minimum number of citizens. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including residency. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including citizenship. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including holding a position that could constitute a conflict of interest if also holding elective office. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as language. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as requirement of party membership or nomination. [?]
  • Limits on individuals wishing to run for office may only be based on objective and reasonable criteria, including a reasonable monetary fee or deposit. [?]

The loss of the right to be elected was only imposed after adjudication by a court

  • Loss of the right to be elected may only be imposed following adjudication by a court. [?]

Independent Candidacy

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom from Discrimination and Equality Before the Law

Regulations regarding candidacy were the same for the independent and partisan actors

  • Regulations regarding candidacy should be the same for independent and partisan actors. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates for reasons such as political opinion or affiliation (past and present). [?]
  • No one should suffer from discrimination or disadvantage of any kind because of his candidacy. [?]

Female Candidates

  • Key Obligations:
  • Equality Between Men and Women
  • Right to Security of the Person

Female candidates participated in the electoral process on an equal basis with men

  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]
  • Political parties must embrace the principles of equal opportunity for female candidates. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates based on sex. [?]

Intimidation, coercion or violence against politically active women was prohibited in law and in practice.

  • States should ensure that violence does not undermine women's political participation. [?]

Equal Treatment of Candidates and Parties

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom from Discrimination and Equality Before the Law
  • Equality Between Men and Women

Candidates and political parties were able to compete with each other on an equal basis

  • The state should enable new parties to compete under fair conditions with more established parties. [?]
  • Procedures for ballot access must be non-discriminatory. [?]
  • All political contestants should have an equal period of time in which to campaign. [?]
  • Political parties should be assured that they will be able to compete with each other on an equal basis before the law. [?]
  • Electoral legislation and its regulations should offer clear guidance with respect to the process by which parties and candidates were placed on the ballot. [?]

No one suffered discrimination or disadvantage of any kind because of their candidacy

  • No one should suffer from discrimination or disadvantage of any kind because of his candidacy. [?]

Regulations for candidacy and campaigning were not discriminatory

  • Discrimination includes any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of sex. [?]
  • Distinctions made on the basis of sexual orientation are to be considered discrimination. [?]
  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]
  • Discrimination means any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, or national or social origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. [?]
  • All are equal before the law, and laws should be equally enforced. [?]
  • Distinctions made on the basis of disabilities are to be considered discrimination. [?]
  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity and expression, migrant, refugee, repatriate, stateless or internally displaced status, genetic trait, mental or physical health condition, including infectious contagious condition and debilitating psychological condition, or other status at any time. [?]

Campaign Silence Period

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom of Opinion and Expression

If a campaign silence period was imposed, it was reasonable in length

  • A silent period may be instituted immediately in advance of polling day, allowing voters to exercise their franchise freely and without undue pressure. [?]

Special Measures

  • Key Obligations:
  • Equality Between Men and Women
  • Freedom from Discrimination and Equality Before the Law

Special measures were taken to ensure de facto equality for people with disabilities

  • Distinctions made on the basis of disabilities are to be considered discrimination. [?]
  • Specific measures aimed at ensuring de facto equality for persons with disabilities should not be considered discriminatory. [?]
  • Women and girls with disabilities are subject to multiple discrimination. [?]

Special measures were taken, as necessary, to promote equality for minorities

  • Special measures for advancing ethnic minorities or groups that have suffered past discrimination should be taken when circumstances warrant, but should not be maintained after the objectives for which they were taken are met, and should not result in the maintenance of unequal rights for different groups. [?]
  • Special measures for advancing ethnic minorities or groups that have suffered past discrimination may include quotas to ensure minority participation or representation. [?]
  • Some measures taken to ensure equitable representation of minority groups should not be considered discriminatory. [?]

The state took steps to ensure de facto equality between men and women

  • States should take special, temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women. [?]
  • Temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women can include financially assisting and training women candidates, amending electoral procedures, developing campaigns directed at equal participation, and targeting women for appointment to public positions, or the use of quotas. [?]
  • Temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women may include the use of quotas to ensure their participation or representation. [?]
  • Special measures for advancing women where they have suffered past discrimination may include quotas to ensure participation or representation. [?]
  • The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women. [?]
  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]

Equal Access to Public Places

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom from Discrimination and Equality Before the Law

Public places were accessible to all in a nondiscriminatory fashion

  • Everyone has the right of equal access to any place or service intended for public use. [?]
  • Political associations should have equal opportunity to access public facilities. [?]

Freedom on Opinion and Expression for Political Candidates and Their Supporters

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom of Opinion and Expression

Freedom of opinion and expression was protected throughout the campaign process

  • Political parties and candidates must be granted, on an equal basis, the freedom to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas of all kinds orally, in writing, in print, through art, or through any other form of media. [?]
  • The communication and circulation of ideas may not be restricted by any indirect means, such as abuse of government or private control over the media. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of national security. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of territorial integrity. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of public safety. [?]
  • Parties and candidates must be able to communicate their opinions to the electorate. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted under certain circumstances as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of protecting the reputation and rights of others. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including when an expression seeks to destroy other established rights. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, whether through public speeches or other means. [?]
  • Freedom of expression includes unhindered communication with international bodies on matters of human rights. [?]

Political parties were able to communicate their opinions to the electorate

  • Free communication of information and ideas about public and political issues between citizens, candidates, and elected representatives is necessary. [?]
  • Parties and candidates must be able to communicate their opinions to the electorate. [?]

Advocacy of Hatred and Incitement to Violence

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom of Opinion and Expression
  • Freedom of Association

Advocacy of national, racial, and religious hatred that constituted incitement to discrimination, hostility, or violence was prohibited by law, and the law was enforced

  • Advocacy of national, racial, or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility, or violence should be prohibited by law. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including when an expression seeks to destroy other established rights. [?]
  • States may prohibit political parties that advocate the use of violence or that pose a realistic and imminent threat to democracy. [?]
  • Freedom of expression may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of protecting the reputation and rights of others. [?]

Campaigning Without Interference

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom of Assembly

Candidates and their supporters were able to assemble freely throughout the campaign period. This obligation included organizing and participating in public rallies and peaceful campaign activities

  • Everyone is entitled to protection under the law when peacefully opposing acts that violate human rights. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to peaceful assembly. [?]
  • Political parties, candidates, and citizens have the right to organize and participate in public rallies and conduct legitimate campaigning without undue influence. [?]
  • Freedom of assembly is integral to fostering communication between citizens and political leaders. [?]

Restrictions on the campaign activities were nondiscriminatory and subject to prompt independent and impartial judicial review

  • Freedom of assembly must be respected in the context of political rallies and meetings. [?]
  • Freedom of assembly may only be restricted under certain circumstances, including in the interest of public health or morals. [?]
  • Freedom of assembly may be restricted under certain circumstances as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society. [?]
  • Freedom of assembly may only be restricted under certain circumstances, including in the interest of protecting the rights and freedoms of others. [?]
  • Freedom of assembly may only be restricted under certain circumstances, including in the interest of public safety/order. [?]
  • Freedom of assembly may only be restricted under certain circumstances, including in the interest of national security. [?]

Freedom of Movement for Political Candidates and Their Supporters

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom of Movement

Freedom of movement was respected for all electoral stakeholders, including candidates, parties, and their supporters during the campaign period

  • Freedom of movement may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of preventing crime. [?]
  • Freedom of movement may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of protecting the rights and freedoms of others. [?]
  • Freedom of movement may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of public health or morals. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to leave and return to his/her own country. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to freedom of movement within the borders of each state. [?]
  • Freedom of movement may only be restricted when provided by law, necessary in a democratic society, and consistent with other rights. [?]
  • Freedom of movement may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of public order. [?]
  • Freedom of movement must be respected in the context of political rallies and meetings. [?]
  • Freedom of movement may only be restricted in limited cases, including in the interest of national security. [?]
  • Movement may be restricted, but such restrictions must be proportionate and be appropriate to achieve their protective function. [?]

Observation of the Campaign Period

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right and Opportunity to Participate in Public Affairs

Citizens were able to participate in public affairs through political parties and nongovernmental organizations

  • Everyone has the right to participate in the public affairs of his/her country. [?]

Election observers were able to observe the campaign process

  • The participation of domestic observers may enhance all aspects of the electoral process. [?]
  • Candidates, party agents, and accredited observers should have access to polling stations. [?]
  • Candidates or their agents and accredited observers should be allowed to observe the counting and tabulation of the votes. [?]

Transparency and Access to Electoral Documents

  • Key Obligations:
  • Transparency and Access to Information

The state proactively put in the public domain government information of public interest

  • States should proactively put in the public domain government information of public interest. [?]

The right of access to information was protected for everyone

  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of preventing crime or disorder. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of protecting personal data. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including when an expression seeks to destroy other established rights. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of public safety. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to seek and receive information. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of territorial integrity. [?]
  • States should take steps to ensure access to information for persons with disabilities without additional cost. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of protecting the reputation and rights of others. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of national security. [?]
  • An applicant for an official document should not be obliged to give reasons for requesting an official document. [?]
  • Access to information may be restricted only in limited cases, including in the interest of preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence. [?]

Right to an Effective Remedy for Candidates and Parties

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right to an Effective Remedy

There was a timely and effective means of seeking redress for violations of rights regarding candidacy and campaigning

  • The legal framework for elections should provide effective redress for violations of electoral rights. [?]
  • Individuals must have the right to a remedy for violation of their participatory rights relating to the election process. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by a competent national tribunal for acts that violate his or her rights or freedoms. [?]
  • Effective redress requires disputes to be dealt with in a timely manner. [?]
  • Cessation of a violation is an essential element of an effective remedy. [?]

Security of the Person of Candidates, Parties, and Their Supporters

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right to Security of the Person

The right to security of the person was enjoyed by all electoral stakeholders, including candidates, party members, and their supporters

  • Law enforcement should behave in a neutral manner. [?]
  • The right to security of the person applies to candidates. [?]
  • Candidates and parties should not engage in violence. [?]
  • Everyone has the right to security of the person without arbitrary arrest or detention. [?]

The right to security of the person for all citizens (including EMB personnel) was protected throughout the election period

  • States should ensure that violence does not undermine women's political participation. [?]

Regulation of Campaign Contributions

  • Key Obligations:
  • Freedom of Opinion and Expression

Candidates could contribute to their own campaigns, subject to reasonable limitations

  • Within reasonable limitations, candidates should be able to contribute to their own campaigns. [?]

Reasonable limitations were imposed on private contributions

  • States should consider introducing rules which define acceptable sources of donations to political parties and/or candidates. [?]
  • Reasonable limitations may be placed on private funding contributions to level the playing field during campaign activities. [?]
  • Limits on private contributions may consist of a limit on the total sum of acceptable private donations. [?]
  • Low value donations may be excluded from the obligation to refuse anonymous donations. [?]
  • Political parties and candidates should be partly financed through private means. [?]
  • States should consider limiting or prohibiting donations from anonymous sources. [?]
  • Limits on private contributions may consist of a maximum threshold on the amount of money that may be accepted from a single source. [?]
  • Cash donations should be prohibited. [?]

The state regulated foreign funding of candidates and parties but did not limit contributions by nationals living abroad

  • States should regulate funding by foreign donors, but should not limit contributions by nationals living abroad. [?]

There were clear rules and regulations regarding the acceptable sources of financial donations

  • Measures taken by states to govern donations to parties should include rules to avoid conflicts of interest. [?]
  • Measures taken by states to govern donations to parties should include rules to ensure the independence of the party. [?]
  • Rules concerning donations to political parties should apply, as appropriate, to other entities associated with political parties. [?]
  • Measures taken by states to govern donations to parties should include rules to avoid prejudice to the activities of the party. [?]
  • States should regulate contributions by legal entities. [?]
  • Measures taken by states to govern donations to parties should include rules to ensure transparency of donations. [?]
  • Public laws should prohibit only those forms of fundraising that have no connection to the party's raison d'etre. [?]

Public Funding for Election Campaigns

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right and Opportunity to Be Elected

Both the state and citizens were able to support candidates and parties, including financial support, and this support did not interfere with the independence of the party

  • The state and its citizens are both entitled to provide support to candidates and political parties. [?]
  • State and citizen support should not interfere with the independence of a political party. [?]
  • State support to candidates and political parties may be financial. [?]
  • State support should be limited to reasonable contributions. [?]
  • The state may contribute, directly or indirectly, to the operational costs of party activities, election campaigns, and the functioning of parliamentary party groups. [?]

State support of candidates was available on an equitable basis and was distributed according to an objective, fair and reasonable formula

  • The formula for the distribution of state support to to candidates and political parties should be objective, fair, and reasonable. [?]
  • If election campaign expenses are reimbursed by the state, the state should ensure that the system of such reimbursement is sufficiently well developed to permit elections to take place in a pluralistic climate. [?]
  • If public funds are distributed to political parties and candidates, those funds should be available on an equitable basis. [?]

Private Funding for Campaigns

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right and Opportunity to Be Elected
  • Freedom of Opinion and Expression

Citizens were able to support candidates and parties, including financial support, and this support did not interfere with the independence of the party

  • The state and its citizens are both entitled to provide support to candidates and political parties. [?]
  • State and citizen support should not interfere with the independence of a political party. [?]
  • Political parties and candidates should be partly financed through private means. [?]

The system for regulating private financial contributions ensured equality of freedom to raise private funds

  • Where private funding contributions are allowed, the system should be designed to ensure equality of freedom to raise private funds. [?]

Campaign Expenditures

  • Key Obligations:
  • Right and Opportunity to Be Elected

All candidates were treated equitably with regard to campaign finance and expenditures

  • Where legislation allows for public funding, private funding, or a mix of the two, legislation should ensure that all political parties and candidates are treated equitably with respect to campaign finance and expenditures. [?]

There were limits imposed on campaign expenditures

  • States should consider imposing reasonable limits on campaign expenditure. [?]

Disclosure of Campaign Finances

  • Key Obligations:
  • Prevention of Corruption
  • Transparency and Access to Information

Campaign finance reporting requirements were realistic, and disclosure requirements struck a balance between transparency and the privacy of donors

  • Requirements for financial reporting of electoral activity should be realistic. [?]
  • Disclosure regulations should strike a balance between transparency and privacy. [?]
  • A balanced and transparent system of political party financing should be fostered. [?]

Disclosure provisions should clearly identify what counts as campaign expenditure

  • Public legislation on disclosure should adopt the following guideline: disclosure provisions should distinguish between routine party finances and electoral finances. [?]
  • Public legislation on disclosure should adopt the following guideline: disclosure rules should include both national and local party finances. [?]
  • Regulations should clearly identify what counts as a campaign expenditure and what does not. [?]
  • Public legislation on disclosure should adopt the following guideline: disclosure provisions should distinguish between the financing of political parties and the financing of candidates. [?]
  • Public legislation on disclosure should adopt the following guideline: disclosure provisions should distinguish between income and expenditure. [?]
  • Public legislation on disclosure should adopt the following guideline: donations exceeding a certain minimum threshold should be disclosed. [?]
  • Public legislation on disclosure should adopt the following guideline: donations should be itemized into standardized categories. [?]
  • Regulations should establish a campaign period for the purposes of expenditure. [?]

The funding received by a political party and/or candidate was disclosed in regular reports

  • Reports should be timely, public, detailed, and comprehensive and should be understandable to the public at large. [?]
  • States should require that parties and related entities keep proper books and accounts and that the accounts of parties be consolidated to include the accounts of said related entities. [?]
  • Parties should offer access to their foundational documents, procedures, and accounts. [?]
  • Separate reporting requirements should be adopted for operational and electoral activities. [?]
  • States should require that parties present and make public their accounts. [?]
  • States should require the accounts of a political party to specify all donations received by the party including the nature and value of the donation. [?]
  • The system should be transparent in disclosing the funding received by any political party or candidate. [?]
  • States should require records of expenditure. [?]
  • Election campaign reporting schedules should allow release of the report in advance of election day. [?]
  • Special records for direct and indirect contributions to campaigns should be required. [?]
  • Parties should submit reports at regular intervals. [?]

Misuse of State Resources

  • Key Obligations:
  • Prevention of Corruption
  • Right to Security of the Person

Public resources were not abused in support of a particular party or candidate

  • Material public resources should not be abused in support of a particular political party or candidate. [?]
  • No party may receive clandestine or fraudulently obtained financial aid. [?]

The law was clear regarding the extent to which public employees could be involved in a campaign. Public employees were not coerced into voting for a particular candidate or party

  • Electoral legislation should include procedures and a range of penalties aimed at preventing corruption in various sectors. [?]
  • The law should be clear regarding the extent to which public employees may be involved in a campaign. [?]
  • Public employees should not be coerced to vote for a particular party or candidate. [?]

There was a balanced and transparent system for political party financing

  • A balanced and transparent system of political party financing should be fostered. [?]

Independent Body to Monitor Campaign Finances

  • Key Obligations:
  • State Must Take Necessary Steps to Give Effect to Rights

The state took steps to provide for independent monitoring of campaign and political financing

  • An independent monitoring body created to review political and campaign finance should have security of funding and be free from political pressure. [?]
  • An independent monitoring body created to review political and campaign finance should provide accessible and timely information. [?]
  • Commissioners of independent monitoring bodies created to review political and campaign finance should not be eligible for re-appointment. [?]
  • An independent monitoring body should be created to review political and campaign finance. [?]
  • An independent monitoring body created to review political and campaign finance must have autonomous capacity to seek out violations. [?]
  • Legislation should define a monitoring body's specific powers and activities. [?]
  • States should provide for the independent monitoring of campaign and political funding. [?]
  • An independent monitoring body created to review political and campaign finance should be multiparty. [?]
  • Legislation should define the procedure for appointing members to a monitoring body created to review political and campaign finance. [?]
  • Legislation should define procedures for appeal against decisions of the independent monitoring body. [?]
  • An independent monitoring body created to review political and campaign finance should respect human rights. [?]
  • Legislation should define the types of breaches of the law to be sanctioned. [?]

Sanctions for Campaign Finance Violations

  • Key Obligations:
  • State Must Take Necessary Steps to Give Effect to Rights

Violations of rules regarding political and campaign finance were subject to proportionate and effective sanctions

  • States should promote specialization of branches of the government in the fight against illegal campaign funding. [?]
  • States should require that the infringement of rules regarding party funding be subject to effective and proportionate sanctions. [?]