Obligation

Equality Between Men and Women

Treaty sources make clear that women should enjoy equal rights to men [1] and that in some cases states should take temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women.[1] Interpretive sources indicate that temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women can include financially assisting and training women candidates, amending electoral procedures, developing campaigns directed at equal participation, and targeting women for appointment to public positions or the use of quotas to ensure female participation in public affairs.[3] Interpretive sources also indicate that measures taken to ensure equitable representation of women should not be considered discriminatory.[4] Interpretive sources highlight the importance of gender disaggregated data in order to fully assess the degree to which women and men are able to participate in electoral processes equally.[5]

Issues


Special Measures

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Legal Framework
  • Voter Registration
  • Election Management
  • Voting Operations
  • Voter Education
  • Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation
  • Candidacy and Campaigning

The state took steps to ensure de facto equality between men and women

  • Special measures for advancing women where they have suffered past discrimination may include quotas to ensure participation or representation. [?]
  • The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women. [?]
  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]
  • Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process. [?]
  • Temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women may include the use of quotas to ensure their participation or representation. [?]
  • States should take special, temporary measures to achieve de facto equality for women. [?]
  • Discrimination includes any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of sex. [?]
  • Temporary special measures to achieve de facto equality for women can include financially assisting and training women candidates, amending electoral procedures, developing campaigns directed at equal participation, and targeting women for appointment to public positions, or the use of quotas. [?]
  • Redistricting should not discriminate against any citizen on the basis of sex. [?]
  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]
  • Measures should be taken to ensure that women understand their right to vote. [?]
  • The voter registration system should be carefully tailored to ensure that cultural factors affecting women (name changes with marriage) do not result in disenfranchisement. [?]

The electoral management body included women

  • Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process. [?]
  • The election management body should include women. [?]

Special measures were taken, as necessary, to promote equality for minorities

  • Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process. [?]

Special measures were taken to ensure de facto equality for people with disabilities

  • Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process. [?]

Female Candidates

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Candidacy and Campaigning

Female candidates participated in the electoral process on an equal basis with men

  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]
  • Political parties must embrace the principles of equal opportunity for female candidates. [?]
  • With respect to candidates for office, there should be no restrictions on candidates based on sex. [?]

Citizenship

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Legal Framework

Citizenship rules did not discriminate directly or indirectly against women

  • The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women. [?]
  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]
  • Discrimination includes any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of sex. [?]
  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]

Freedom From Discrimination in the Legal Framework

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Legal Framework

The legal framework for elections did not include provisions that discriminate on the basis of prohibited grounds

  • Discrimination includes any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of sex. [?]

The legal framework for elections included guarantees of equality before the law

  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]

The Legal Framework and Men and Women

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Legal Framework

The legal framework for elections included guarantees of equality before the law for men and women

  • The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women. [?]
  • Women should enjoy equality with men before the law. [?]
  • Discrimination includes any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of sex. [?]
  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]

Freedom From Discrimination and the Electoral Management Body

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Election Management

The electoral management body treated all citizens equally

  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]

Equal Treatment of Candidates and Parties

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Candidacy and Campaigning

Regulations for candidacy and campaigning were not discriminatory

  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]
  • Discrimination includes any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of sex. [?]

Freedom From Discrimination and the Media

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • The Media

Female and male candidates received equal coverage

  • Women candidates should receive equal coverage to their male counterparts. [?]

The regulation of the media promoted equality and absence of discrimination

  • Discrimination must not be practiced based on sex. [?]

Freedom From Discrimination in Voter Education

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voter Education

All citizens received voter education regardless of their race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, physical or mental ability, sexual orientation or gender identity, property, birth, or other status

  • The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination against women and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination against women. [?]
  • Measures should be taken to ensure that women understand their right to vote. [?]

Sources

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