Special measures were taken, as necessary, to promote equality for minorities
- Special measures for advancing ethnic minorities or groups that have suffered past discrimination may include quotas to ensure minority participation or representation.
- Some measures taken to ensure equitable representation of minority groups should not be considered discriminatory.
- The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination.
- Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process.
- Voter education should be accessible to all voters, including those with special needs.
- Special measures for advancing ethnic minorities or groups that have suffered past discrimination should be taken when circumstances warrant, but should not be maintained after the objectives for which they were taken are met, and should not result in the maintenance of unequal rights for different groups.
- Discrimination means any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, or national or social origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.