Special measures were taken, as necessary, to promote equality for minorities
- The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination.
- Voter education should be accessible to all voters, including those with special needs.
- Electoral system design should take into account the needs and facilitate participation and representation of vulnerable groups, including of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities.
- Election management bodies should ensure that women and marginalized groups participate in the electoral process.
- Some measures taken to ensure equitable representation of minority groups should not be considered discriminatory.
- Discrimination means any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference on the basis of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, or national or social origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability.
- Special measures for advancing ethnic minorities or groups that have suffered past discrimination should be taken when circumstances warrant, but should not be maintained after the objectives for which they were taken are met, and should not result in the maintenance of unequal rights for different groups.
- Special measures to ensure participation and representation of national minorities may include reduced or waived minimum support, deposit, and electoral threshold requirements, and quotas.