The state must perform both its "negative duty" to refrain from discrimination and its "positive duty" to prevent discrimination.
- Special Measures
- Freedom From Discrimination and the Electoral Management Body
- Freedom from Discrimination and Electoral Dispute Resolution
- Freedom From Discrimination in the Electoral System and Boundary Delimitation Process
- Freedom From Discrimination in the Legal Framework
- Freedom From Discrimination and the Media
- Freedom From Discrimination in Voter Education
- Special measures were taken, as necessary, to promote equality for minorities
- The electoral management body treated all citizens equally
- The electoral dispute resolution process did not discriminate on the basis of prohibited grounds
- The electoral system did not discriminate against citizens on grounds prohibited by international law
- The legal framework for elections did not include provisions that discriminate on the basis of prohibited grounds
- The regulation of the media promoted equality and absence of discrimination
- All citizens received voter education regardless of their race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, physical or mental ability, sexual orientation or gender identity, property, birth, or other status
- Every woman has the right to the recognition, enjoyment, exercise and protection of all human rights and freedoms embodied in regional and international human rights instruments. These rights include, among others: …f.The right to equal protection before the law and of the law.
- Article 18 may not be relied upon to justify discrimination against women by reference to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; States parties should therefore provide information on the status of women as regards their freedom of thought, conscience and religion, and indicate what steps they have taken or intend to take both to eliminate and prevent infringements of these freedoms in respect of women and to protect their right not to be discriminated against.
- Under article 26 of the Covenant, a State has both a positive duty legally to prevent discrimination and a negative duty to refrain from discriminating.
- The state shall not only (passively) respect the exercise of the freedom of association, but shall also actively protect and facilitate this exercise. The state shall protect political parties and individuals in their freedom of association from interference by non-state actors, inter alia by legislative means.