"States have resorted to disproportionate measures such as Internet shutdowns and vague and overly broad laws to criminalize, block, censor and chill online speech and shrink civic space. These measures are not only incompatible with international human rights law but also contribute to amplifying misperceptions, fostering fear and entrenching public mistrust of institutions."
DocumentUNHRC: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression: Disinformation and Freedom of Opinion and Expression, para. 85
- Internet freedom, including access to online resources and digital tools, should be protected as essential to the exercise of human rights online, with any restrictions based in law, proportionate, and necessary in a democratic society.
- Internet intermediaries should recognize and protect human rights online, including through accessible and effective complaint and redress mechanisms.
- To address disinformation online, self-regulation by internet intermediaries and positive measures, including independent fact-checking, public education, and media literacy campaigns, could be prioritized over criminalisation.