Any body that meets the criteria of impartiality and independence can be considered a tribunal.
- The notion of a 'tribunal' in article 14, paragraph 1 designates a body, regardless of its denomination, that is established by law, is independent of the executive and legislative branches of government or enjoys in specific cases judicial independence in deciding legal matters in proceeding that are judicial in nature. Article 14, paragraph 1, second sentence guarantees access to such tribunals to all who have criminal charges brought against them...Similarly, whenever rights and obligations in a suit at law are determined, this must be done at least at one stage of the proceedings by a tribunal within the meaning of this sentence.
- This recommendation is applicable to all persons exercising judicial functions, including those dealing with constitutional, criminal, civil, commercial and administrative law matters... All necessary measures should be taken to respect, protect and promote the independence of judges.
- a. Judicial review should be conducted by a tribunal established by law whose independence and impartiality are guaranteed in accordance with the terms of Recommendation No. R (94) 12. b. The tribunal may be an administrative tribunal or part of the ordinary court system.