Obligation

Universal Suffrage

The obligation to ensure universal suffrage appears in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other international treaties and requires that the state guarantee that the broadest pool of voters be allowed to cast ballots.[1] Unreasonable restrictions on universal suffrage include those based on:

  • Excessive residency requirements;[2]
  • Naturalized citizenship;[3]
  • Criminal conviction (disproportionate to the severity of the crime or blanket disenfranchisement provisions);[4]
  • Surpassing the legal age of majority;[5]
  • Race;[6]
  • Sex;[7]
  • Religion;[8]
  • Physical disability;[9]
  • Mental, intellectual, or psychosocial disability (that is disproportionate or has no reasonable or objective relationship to the person’s ability to vote);[10]
  • Political or other opinion;[11]
  • National or social origin;[12]
  • Sexual orientation or gender identity;[13]
  • Language;[14]
  • Birth or other status;[15]
  • Literacy;[16]
  • Education;[17]
  • Property ownership;[18]
  • Party membership;[19]
  • Status as an internally displaced person;[20]
  • Economic circumstances.[21]

International treaties add that accommodation should be made to facilitate voting by people with disabilities[22] or by those with special needs.[23]

Issues


Accuracy of the List

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voter Registration

The state took steps to facilitate registration

  • The fulfillment of universal suffrage is partially dependent on the success of the voter registration process. [?]
  • Provisions should be made for absentee registrants. [?]

Voter Registration and the Fulfillment of Human Rights

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voter Registration

There was adequate time for the voter registration process, including exhibition of preliminary lists and opportunities for challenges and corrections

  • The voter registration process should promote broad participation and not inhibit the participation of eligible voters. [?]
  • Potential voters should be offered continuous and accessible voter registration facilities. [?]

Voter Eligibility and Barriers to Registration

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voter Registration

Voter registration promoted broad participation, and there were no barriers to participation by otherwise qualified eligible voters

  • The voter registration process should promote broad participation and not inhibit the participation of eligible voters. [?]
  • Procedures should not create unnecessary technical barriers to participation by otherwise qualified eligible voters. [?]
  • Universal suffrage requires that the broadest reasonable pool of voters is guaranteed participatory rights. [?]
  • There should be no fee for citizens to be registered as voters. [?]
  • Provisions should be made for absentee registrants. [?]
  • Potential voters should be offered sufficient time to register to vote. [?]

Limitations on universal suffrage imposed during the voter registration process were reasonable and objective

  • Methods to facilitate voting may include making special provision for members of the military to vote. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include mobile voting. [?]
  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]
  • Any restrictions on the right to register to vote are to be established in advance of the registration period. [?]
  • Provisions should be made for absentee registrants. [?]
  • Potential voters should be offered sufficient time to register to vote. [?]
  • The fulfillment of universal suffrage is partially dependent on the success of the voter registration process. [?]
  • Universal suffrage requires that the broadest reasonable pool of voters is guaranteed participatory rights. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include electronic voting. [?]
  • Potential voters should be offered continuous and accessible voter registration facilities. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include postal voting. [?]
  • The voter registration process should promote broad participation and not inhibit the participation of eligible voters. [?]
  • Procedures should not create unnecessary technical barriers to participation by otherwise qualified eligible voters. [?]

Voter registration promoted universal suffrage

  • The voter registration process should promote broad participation and not inhibit the participation of eligible voters. [?]
  • The fulfillment of universal suffrage is partially dependent on the success of the voter registration process. [?]
  • Universal suffrage requires that the broadest reasonable pool of voters is guaranteed participatory rights. [?]
  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]

Voter Education on Voter Registration

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voter Registration

Voter education campaigns included information about the voting and registration process

  • Voters should be provided with information on the procedure by which they register to vote. [?]
  • Registration procedures should be clearly stated and readily accessible for review by potential voters. [?]

Facilitation of Voting

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voting Operations

Voting operations facilitated broad participation

  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including the elderly. [?]
  • Cases of accommodation of voters with special needs should be well defined. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including foreign-service personnel. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include electronic voting. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include voting abroad. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include establishing polling sites in prisons. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including the illiterate. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including conscripts. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include establishing polling sites in hospitals. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including workers (and migrant workers out of country). [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including prisoners who have voting rights. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include early voting. [?]
  • Universal suffrage requires that the broadest reasonable pool of voters is guaranteed participatory rights. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including students. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including eligible voters in hospitals. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including persons with disabilities. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include postal voting. [?]
  • Accommodation to vote should be made for voters with special needs, including eligible voters currently out of the country. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include making special provision for members of the military to vote. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include mobile voting. [?]
  • Special voting procedures must provide the necessary security and transparency to the voting process. [?]
  • Various methods may be employed to facilitate voting for those unable to reach a polling station. [?]

There were an adequate number of polling places to accommodate voters

  • There should be enough polling places to accommodate the number of voters. [?]

Sufficient resources, human and material, were available at each polling station

  • The polling station and its staff should be of sufficient size to handle the expected number of voters. [?]

Polling places were located in public places that were easy to access

  • Polling sites must be accessible. [?]
  • Polling stations should be located in public places. [?]

Universal Suffrage, the Right to Vote, and Voter Education

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voter Education

All eligible voters were informed of their electoral rights before, during, and after election day

  • The fulfillment of universal and equal suffrage is partially dependent on the success of an adequate voter education process. [?]

The obligations of universal suffrage and the right to vote were advanced through voter education

  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]

Counting Cast Ballots

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Vote Counting and Tabulation

Vote counting and tabulation processes protected the right to be elected

  • The voter registration process should promote broad participation and not inhibit the participation of eligible voters. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include making special provision for members of the military to vote. [?]
  • Procedures should not create unnecessary technical barriers to participation by otherwise qualified eligible voters. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include mobile voting. [?]
  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]
  • Universal suffrage requires that the broadest reasonable pool of voters is guaranteed participatory rights. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include electronic voting. [?]
  • Methods to facilitate voting may include postal voting. [?]

The state took proactive measures to promote voting by the broadest pool of eligible voters and ensure votes cast were counted

  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]

The vote counting and tabulation process did not discriminate against anyone on the basis of prohibited grounds

  • Elections must be held by universal suffrage. [?]

Proxy Voting

  • Relevant Election Parts:
  • Voting Operations

Proxy voting, if allowed, was strictly regulated

  • Proxy voting is allowed, but should be strictly regulated to respect electoral security. [?]

Sources

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