The state should endeavor to ensure a pluralistic media that allows its citizens to access a variety of viewpoints and media outlets.
- The Parties [States], in the spirit of co-operation and mutual assistance which underlies this Convention, shall endeavour to avoid that programme services transmitted or retransmitted by a broadcaster or any other legal or natural person within their jurisdiction, within the meaning of Article 3 [defining jurisdiction], endanger media pluralism.
- Member States agree to create political and economic environment conducive to the growth of pluralistic media.
- The freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected.
- Media pluralism and diversity of media content are essential for the functioning of a democratic society and are the corollaries of the fundamental right to freedom of expression and information as guaranteed by Article 10 of the Convention. States have a positive obligation to guarantee pluralism in the media sector, which entails ensuring that a diversity of voices, including critical ones, can be heard.
- States should adopt effective measures to avoid undue concentration of media ownership, although such measures shall not be so stringent that they inhibit the development of the media sector as a whole.
- Monopolies or oligopolies…conspire against democracy by limiting the plurality and diversity which ensure the full exercise of people's right to information.
- Declare that in the field of information and mass media they seek to achieve the following objectives: d. the existence of a wide variety of independent and autonomous media, permitting the reflection of diversity of ideas and opinions.
- During electoral campaigns, regulatory frameworks should encourage and facilitate the pluralistic expression of opinions via the broadcast media.
- Freedom of expression imposes an obligation on the authorities to take positive measure to promote diversity, which include among other things: Availability and promotion of a range of information and ideas to the public; pluralistic access to the media and other means of communication, including by vulnerable or marginalised groups, such as women children and refugees, as well as linguistic and cultural groups.
- [States should foster citizen participation in the electoral process by] ensuring freedom of political debate in the media and guaranteeing that electoral campaigns are open and accessible and that they allow genuine debate that is not only of interest to voters but also informative for their choices. This requires, in particular, transparency and pluralism of all media as well as equal access for all candidates and political parties to the public service media, which should be impartial. Any national regulations on election campaigns should strike a fair balance between freedom of expression and ensuring equal opportunities.
- The media should have the freedom and resources at all times to fulfil their task of providing accurate and reliable reporting on matters of public interest, in particular concerning vital democratic processes and activities, such as elections, referendums and public consultations on matters of general interest.
- States should make particular efforts, taking advantage of technological developments, to ensure that the broadest possible diversity of media content, including general interest content, is accessible to all groups in society, particularly those which may have specific needs or face disadvantage or obstacles when accessing media content, such as minority groups, refugees, children, the elderly and persons with cognitive or physical disabilities. This implies that such media content should be made available in different languages and in suitable formats and that it should be easy to find and use.
- Accordingly, the Assembly calls on member States to review, where necessary, their regulatory frameworks governing media coverage of election campaigns, in order to bring them into line with Council of Europe standards, ensuring in particular that they: 8.1. promote a free, independent and pluralist media environment as an essential precondition for combating disinformation and undue propaganda.
- In view of the foregoing, the Committee of Ministers: (…) - emphasises in particular the need to assess the regulatory frameworks related to political communication and electoral processes to safeguard the fairness and integrity of elections offline as well as online in line with established principles. In particular it should be ensured that voters have access to comparable levels of information across the political spectrum, that voters are aware of the dangers of political redlining, which occurs when political campaigning is limited to those most likely to be influenced, and that voters are protected effectively against unfair practices and manipulation.
- The media therefore have a great deal of responsibility placed on them during election periods, and it is essential that the mass media of radio, television and newspapers provide a sufficient level of coverage of the elections that is fair, balanced and impartial, so that the public are informed of the whole spectrum of political opinions and ideas.
- An independent and diverse media sector is the best way to ensure that a wide range of opinion and viewpoints are expressed and communicated to the public.
- Sufficient 'space' should be allocated to broadcasting uses on different communications platforms to ensure that, as a whole, the public is able to receive a range of diverse broadcasting services…Different types of broadcasters--commercial, public service and community--should be able to operate on, and have equitable access to, all available distribution platforms.
- States should put in place a range of measures, including those highlighted in our Joint Declaration of 12 December 2007, to create an environment in which a pluralistic media sector can flourish. These should include, among others, obligations of transparency of media ownership, licensing of different types of broadcasters to promote diversity, rules to prevent undue concentration of media ownership and measures to promote content diversity among and within media outlets.
- Access by the public to information should be guaranteed by the diversity of the sources and means of information available to it, thus enabling each individual to check the accuracy of facts and to appraise events objectively. To this end, journalists must have freedom to report and the fullest possible facilities of access to information.
- Effective measures should be adopted to prevent undue concentration of media ownership.
- A monopoly or excessive concentration of ownership of media, in the hands of a few is to be avoided in the interest of developing a plurality of viewpoints and voices; State-owned media have a responsibility to report on all aspects of national life and to provide access to a diversity of viewpoints.
- Calls upon all States: (h) To promote a pluralistic approach to information and multiple points of views through encouraging a diversity of ownership of media and of sources of information, including mass media, through inter alia, transparent licensing systems and effective regulations on undue concentration of ownership of the media in the private sector.
- In recognition of the particular importance of media diversity to democracy, special measures, including anti-monopoly rules, should be put in place to prevent undue concentration of media or cross-media ownership, both horizontal and vertical.
- An independent and pluralistic media is essential to a free and open society and accountable government.